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Angel Falls
Best Web Guides
Canaima Lagoon
El Sapo Falls
Getting Around
Getting There
Orchid Island
Pemon Indians
Places To Stay
Plant Life
Salto La Cortina
Sink Holes
Trip Reports
When to Go
Yuri Falls
Puerto Ordaz
Northeast coast
Mt Roraima Gran Sabana
Angel Falls
Passport rqr'd
Boa Vista Brazil
Trinidad Gulf
Puerto Ordaz
Ciudad Bolivar
Gran Sabana
wiki-travel forums

-Best page to ad your help to fellow travelers
Angel Falls

top 100 falls
Plane Trip above Angle falls & Caimana Lagoon 10 minutes google video with related quickie vids nearby
Bolívar (state)
Angel Falls
Caroní River
Canaima National Park
Auyantepui tepui
Rutaca airlines
If the volume of tourists to the Gran Sabana does increase, as it has done over the last two decades, it is essential they be sensitized to the environment -- both human and natural -- they're entering. This is what the Lost World site is about, please take your time to explore it.
It is recommended that you:
ID. or passport * Sweaters or Jackets * Solid walking shoes * Jeans and light cotton trousers * Sports shorts * Flashlight * Rain- protection * Bathing suits and towels * Insect repellent and solar protector * hat or scarf.

Overnight trips in jungle camps are not recommended for persons of advanced age or with health problems

->Respect the wildlife and its habitat

->Follow the signs along the path - remember that you are visiting extremely fragile ecosystems

->Learn about Canaima National Park before visiting; register with the forest rangers' post and follow their advice

->Present sound contamination; carry no radios or sound equipment that may disturb the peace in the park

->Respect the culture and customs of the Native Indians

->Do not contaminate the rivers; use only soaps with low detergent levels.

->Prevent forest fires; take every precaution necessary

Get here by light plane flying over Angels Falls prior to landing in this small, charming indigenous settlement at the base of Auyantepui. On clear days, the entire tepuy can be seen. Once there,  take the excursions guided by Indians, skirting rivers and waterfalls, to arrive at the impressive Kavak canyon whose vault contains a magnificent view of the sky and a cascade enclosed by stone walls.

 At the indigenous community of Santa Marta, you can observe  Indians working on handicrafts to sell to you. Visit the village of Kamarata, set in a valley formed by 2 tepuis creating a natural portal,  to the La Toma falls

A field trip to this road isolated village consists of traveling through a rainforest, then swimming into a cave that opens into a grotto containing a splendid, 300-foot Kavak waterfall.
Situated in the far south of the Kavak/Kamarata Valley. Known for the crystalline waters of its deep pool and for the rocky fissures that have formed at the foot of the Auyán-tepuy.  The roar of the white water is magnified by the canyon, you can have a swim in this strange, beautiful place The grottos are located at the source of the Kavac River and consist of rocky walls to which vegetation clings.

You could begin your trip in Kavak by flying in and traveling by canoe to Cainaima Village

Some 536 bird species have been recorded from the park (Goodwin and Salas 1997). Of these, 42 are endemic to the tepui region. Red and green Macaw, Red billed Macaw, fiery-shouldered Parakeets, Brown-throated Parakeets, King Vulture, Paradise Tanager, White Bellbird, Guianan Cock of the Rock, Musician Wren, Great Kiskadee, Bananaquit, Velvet Browned Brillant, Capunchinbird, sooty-capped Hermit, Blue-cheeked Parrot and others.
The fauna is diverse, though not very abundant: 118 mammals, 550 birds, 72 reptiles and 55 amphibians have been recorded (Government of Venezuela, 1993). There are six species of mammals of conservation concern: giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), giant armadillo Priodontes maximus (V), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), little spotted cat Leopardus tigrinus (K) and margay Leopardus wiedii (K) (Groombridge, 1993). The only endemic mammal is the rodent Podoxymys roraimae. The avifauna is varied and contains over thirty species endemic to Pantepui (ICBP, 1992). The less mobile orders, amphibians, reptiles and fish, exhibit even higher levels of endemism.

Canaima National Park (Parque Nacional Canaima)

Most of the Canaima National Park falls under the influence of an Equatorial Climate, with sunshine and high precipitations throughout the year. Precipitation varies greatly depending on local geographic features though mean annual rainfall is 2600mm while higher areas may have up to 4,000mm per year. The climate of the great savanna plateau is temperate with a mean annual temperature of 24.5° C with the temperatures on tepui summits as low as 0° C during the night.   The dry season lasts from January to March, and the rainy season lasts from April to December.

The climate of the Gran Sabana is mild and very agreeable, partly due to the altitude of 2200-2500' (700-800m), and the continual fresh, buoyant winds. The temperature average varies since 10º C. to 22º C. The period of rains is since May until November, with a high precipitación of 3.000 mm annual
Weather Forecast- Santa Elena De Uairen by

Ucaima”, the origin Pemón word  that means “what attracts.”
Waterfalls from  Islands in Time
Salto Aponwao (Chinak-merú)
Among the Park's main features we find its waterfalls, known as meru or vena in the Pemon language. the most important ones are
Angel Falls or Parecupa-vena
Hacha or Kama-meru
La Cortina or Aicha-meru
Quebrada de Jaspe
Salto El Sapo
Salto Catedral
The main rivers that cross Canaima National Park are the Caroni, Carrao, Aponwao, Kukenan, Churun, Arabopo, Yuruani, Kauai, Cucurital, Tirika, Urimank Aranan, Kamoirank Apakara, Aprado, Aravak, Mauruk, Surukun, Kerepakupai, Tek Luana, Arauriquenk Antabare, and Karaurin, many of which are navigable throughout the year; others are only navigable during the rainy season.

Caroní, Carrao, Aponwao, Kukenán, Churúm, Arabopo, Yuruaní
Venezuelan Embassy in Japan]

Trip Reports:
"About 50 hammocks complete with mosquito nets awaited our tired bodies. Soon the kitchen was a hive of activity and we enjoyed spaghetti bolognaise by candle light, joined by a group of 20 Italians who raged into the night.

Next morning our canoe headed up the tributary Rio Churan to take us deep within the mountains."
by alan Taylor for
"At nearby Canaima, which means poltergeist, there are seven waterfalls. People used not to go near them for fear the spirits would get them. We went very near - walking behind the width of the great El Sapo waterfall. As tons of water smashed past, we edged along the rocky path gasping through the flying, choking spray. On the other side, filled with an overwhelming sense of exhilaration, I plunged into a still pool. Not only had our guide extolled the iron-rich waters as a useful antidote to wrinkles, she had also kept repeating 'I get my power from the waterfall'.
Angela Clarence at
Canaima National Park Tips from a TripAdvisor Member: 

You must do this.
 I will never forget it, and will never be able to put it into words to do it justice.
 Just Do It!

From Margarita Island it was approximately a 2 hour flight in a 12 seater plane. After walking to the lagoon,  got into boats which took us past many waterfalls then alighted on a small beach. We then walked behind two of the waterfalls, this was fantastic! (You will get very wet and you need to wear either trainers or other sensible footwear.) 
We had flown past the Angel Falls on the outward journey but were unable to see the falls because of clouds so our pilot flew past again and we were able to get some photos from the plane.
One word of warning - to do justice to this trip it is essential that you are physically fit as there is quite a lot of climbing involved.

To get to the waterfalls, one must take a boatride down the Caroni River and its various tributaries. Our boatman was highly skilled and familiar with every nook and cranny of the river. It was the rainy season so the river was high and the water covered up all of the islands in the river. We went down some rapids and generally had an amazing ride.

THEN, the boat docks and we went went on a 3 mile trek through the jungle, about an hour or two of walking up and down a rocky, slippery, path, through marshes, over savannah. It was not for sissies. Also, our guide, Luis Moreno, likes to go FAST. It was about 85 degrees and humid. HOT, but not extremely hot. It is a good idea to wear long sleeves and long pants to protect yourself from the sun, the bugs, and the folage but not everyone did. We also wore bathing suits so that we could swim in the Falls.

The other highlight was the visit to the Indian village (really a camp) where a family of about 15-20 people live without running water, indoor plumbing or electricity. We bought beautiful jewelry at a very low price. They keep birds as pets. The feathers are clipped so they don't fly away and they live freely in their camp.

Liked: A bird had built a nest in our cabana
Disliked: Lights out after 11 p.m. and a rugged climb up and down from the cabanas
Tips/Secrets: bring bug spray, sun screen, long sleeves and pants (but summer variety) and prepare for a lot of walking. GOOD SHOES are a must.

Take plenty of suncream and a hat, as you are in an open top boat for several hours each day. Also, buy any alcohol you may want before you leave Ciudad Bolivar, .... The camp that we stayed at was in a good location and away from other groups. We stayed in a big hut-like construction with a communal sleeping room with hammocks and blankets and a seperate eating area. It was well-maintained, with flushing toilets and cold-water showers. The food was good and filling.

 There are two areas where the tour operators have set up their concrete-and-corrugated-iron camps: around the confluence of the Carrao and Ahonda rivers (in vicinity of Isla la Orchidea in the Carrao), and around Isla Ratoncito at the base of Angel Falls. The Ahonda River is Churún’s smaller brother, another canyon carved into the Auyán plateau. Some companies have come and gone, and in general there is a lot more competition nowadays than there used to be, to the tourist’s benefit. [more by  Arno C. Hammann:]
  • Laguna de Canaima
  • Salto Hacha (waterfall)
  • Salto El Sapo (waterfall)
  • Carrao River
  • Mayupa rapids
  • Salto Yuri (waterfall)
  • Cucurital River jungle and grasslands
  • Isla de la Orquìdea (orchid Island)
  • Churún River
  • Angel Falls
  • Kavac
  • Kamarata
Salto La Cortina
Salto La Cortina is another of the major waterfalls which drop from Auyan Tepui within Canaima National Park. The falls plunge a sheer 300 meters, give or take, into a large bowl-shaped amphitheater.
Sink Holes
SARISARINAMA HOLES, a geological phenomenon consisting of circular holes measuring 300m both in diameter and depth
[film at]

Canaima National Park is the home to the famous ancient table-top-mountain landscape of the Guyana Highlands. This is a 30,000 km² park in south-eastern Venezuela that borders Brazil and Guyana. It is located in the state of Bolívar, and was established on the 12 June 1962. One of the six largest National Parks in the world. The Park protects the NW section of the Guyana Shield, a unique and beautiful region with the Gran Sabana surrounded by more than 100 tabletop mountains called “tepuis. The Gran Sabana occupies about half of Canaima National Park, which was established in 1962. In 1975, Canaima was tripled in size to 30,000 km2,  (slightly larger than Maryland and about the size of Belgium). In 1994, Canaima National Park became 1 of 126 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Tepuis (teh-poo-ees) are the famous characteristic table-top mountains sculpted by the milliennums from the oldest rocks on Earth. The mostDownload famous Tepuis in the park are Monte Roraima, the tallest and easiest to climb, and Auyantepui, from which fall the Angel Falls, the highest waterfall in the world. The Tepuis are sandstone and date back to a time when South America and Africa were part of a super-continent.  Originally the tops of the tepuis were joined together in a vast continuous plateau that stretched over a large part of northern South America from the Colombian Mountains into Guyana. Over the time erosion carved steep-walled valleys and crevices into the plateau leaving fragments of the plateau completely isolated. The region remains one of the most thinly settled and one of the most beautiful of all natural areas in South America

The name of the park, which derives from the novel "Canaima" by Venezuelan author Rómulo Gallegos, means "spirit of evil" in the language of the Pemón, local inhabitants of the park. Their population is more than 20,000, with about three quarters of these within the national park taking an increasing interest in the booming visitor industry. Pemón indians often lead hikers to some of the more accessible tepuis, such as Roraima, Matawi (Kukenan) and Auyantepuy.

The park is bordered by the Río Carrao and the Lema Mountain Range to the north, the Pakaraima Range as far as the Brazilian border to the south, the headwaters of the Río Venamo and the Roraima Range as far as Roraima-tepui to the east, and the Río Caroní to the west. The nearest cities are is Ciudad Bolívar some 600km to the north. The two rivers meet where Ciudad Guayana (city of Guiana) now exists. This city was created by the fusion of old cities of San Felix and Puerto Ordaz, in either sides of the river.

The park protects the headwaters of the Río Caroní which supplies Guri, the country's largest hydroelectric power station and source of 70% of the nation's energy  

GETTING THERE: Cainaina Village
by air, departing from Maiquetía, Ciudad Bolìvar, Puerto Ordaz,  Margarita,  Maiquetía (Caracas),or Puerto La Cruz.
You pay the National Parks fee upon landing.
 Avior ( from Caracas direct.
Aerotuy ( flies from Porlamar on Isla de Margarita.
Rutaca  (tel: (0285) 632-2195 ) small planes leave Ciudad Bolívar in the early mornings, usually providing flights out in the afternoons. Rutaca’s planes essentially go to wherever there are passengers in the Gran Sabana, and are the best option for getting to Kavak and Kamarata, or on to Santa Elena.
By Road:
A main road from Ciudad Bolívar runs along the eastern border of the park through the Gran Sabana, bisecting its south-east corner. There are no other roads within the park, the western section being accessible only by air.
Getting Around There
Besides the few dirt tracks that ring the eastern edge of the lagoon and define the tiny village of Canaima, there are virtually no roads in this region. Transportation is conducted primarily by boat in traditional dugout canoes called curiaras and small airplane.
You can only travel by dugout canoe up the Río Churún to Angel Falls in the rainy season, which runs from April-May to late November. This is the north-west of the park, whereas in other areas rainfall is more or less constant throughout the year The unofficial season for tours to the foot of Angel Falls runs from June through November. October and November are regarded as the best months to visit, since the rains are winding down but the water level remains high. High season is July to August and  November to January. Here prices can get inflated, and the river, lagoon, and waterfall tours seem  crowded with damn tourists.

The dry season while not so good for the waterfalls and traveling the rivers without the hassle of portage around shallow rapids does create a lot of nice sandy beaches along the rivers' edges which all but disappear during the rainy season

Best Web Guides  ||map2 Canaima National Park
        by Emilio Pérez
|| map1

map & many fotos
Angel Falls |
Canaima: Sapo and Sapito falls
Angel's Plane: For decades, the silver fuselage of "El Río Coroní" could be seen on the top of Auyántepui. In 1970, it was salvaged by the Venezuelan Air Force. The plane was restored and is currently on display at the airport in Ciudad Bolívar. Bush pilot Angel's 11 day trek from where his borrowed plane  got stuck in a bog on top of Angel Falls put the world's tallest falls on the world map. The escape route had been previously scouted by fellow adventurer Gustavo Henry who with Angel, his wife and his gardener made their way down Devil's Tepuy. A note found years later in the cockpit by angel reads "we were on the ground 750 feet before we hit soft spot"  Some paragraphs extracted from the Traveler's Venezuela Companion © The Globe Pequot Press.
"In 1921, the dour geologist and explorer, J.R. McCracken contracted a maverick bush pilot called Jimmie Angel, a Canadian Air Force pilot of the First World War with a penchant for red-heads, to fly down to the Venezuelan outback.

 Jimmie Angel

McCracken never showed Jimmie a map, and simply told him where to go. Jimmie did as he was told, eventually landing his plane on top of one of the 'tepuys' ('mountains' in the local Pemon Indian tongue). McCracken then proceeded to pan a river, and fill a sack, so the story goes, full of gold nuggets. So many, in fact, Angel feared they wouldn't be able to take off again with the extra weight in the fast-fading light. As they nosed off the mountain, the plane plunged thousands of feet before Angel managed to level out. They returned to Caracas, and McCracken paid Jimmie the other half of the money he had promised him: $3,000, a tidy sum back then."
"The Living Edens : The Lost World" The Making of the Tepuis Film :
Places To Stay
Canaima National Park
The small town of Canaima is the gateway to Angel Falls. Given the remote location, lack of roads, and limited accommodations, you should make reservations prior to your arrival. Accommodations, range from a hammock under a simple roof to a nice room with hot water in a full bath in an elegant lodge setting. Booking direct can save you travel dollars. There's fax and internet service in the village of about 1,000 people.
Arekuna Lodge: [Rooms: 30] Canaima National Park  Caroní river, Canaima National Park  In-room: no a/c, no phone, no TV. In-hotel: bar, laundry service. All-inclusive.
"The Lodge itself is lovely and overlooks the Caroni River. The food was good and the service pleasant. I highly recommend this trip to adventurous people in good physical condition who are willing to rough it.
"The electricity comes from solar panels and is only available from 5 to 11 p.m. There is water but no hot water but the cool shower that I had after returning from the first day's march was heavenly.

This self-contained luxury camp is on the bank of the Río Caroni, just outside the boundaries of Parque Nacional Canaima. An outing is also offered on the Caroní River with a walk of 1 km. to reach the waterfalls of Las Babas. If the river isn't too low (in the dry season), you can visit some petroglyphs. Beyond the waterfalls, there is a beautiful beach with red water

Barquilla de Fresa (Strawberry Ice Cream Inn)
Canaima National Park, Venezuela
Bernal Tours & Camp  located on a small ["Anatoly"] island at the base of the Hacha waterfalls at Canaima National Park 
can accommodate one to thirty people in hammocks.  Its isolated spot, just up from the pink-tinted beach, makes for a wonderful hide-away

Campamento Canaima by Rooms: 96 Campamento Canaima Canaima National Park, Venezuela
run by the airline Avensa/Servivensa, tel: (022) 907-8130 (022) 907-8054 fax: (022) 907-8053

"Great location, magnificent views, excellent service "

Horturvensa camp is booked through & 
Jungle Rudy's Ucaima Camp: Rooms: 14 
Canaima National Park, Venezuela
tel/fax: (022) 693-0618 or (0286) 622359 & (also known as Campamento Ucaima) Visitors are attended to by the family of the legendary Rudy Truffino. It is located on the banks of the Carrao River, 2kn from the lagoon. You can enjoy a refreshing dip in the river. Each room has fans, private bathroom, and a small porch with hammocks.
Our only minor complaint was that most of the rooms don't have hot water, and when you come home wet/cold/tired, a cold shower isn't too pleasant. Then again, it's a campamento, not a hotel! the food was absolutely superb and the staff was lovely. We enjoyed the resident parrots and tortoises, too.
Lodge of José on Orchid Island
Parakaupa 8 rooms, private bathroom tel/fax: (0286) 614963 email: parakaupa at
Good views, nice garden, decent food and fans.  A few minutes away from the Canaima lagoon
Posada Churun tel: (0414) 8840511 has 5 simple rooms, and some hammock-slinging space. Large restaurant next-door
Wakü Lodge, 15 rooms
Located on the western shores of the lagoon. Opened in October 2001, it's  the most attractive of the camps on the lagoon. Find comfortable rooms with private bathrooms and hot water plus your own porch with hammock, ample windows that overlook the Canaima Lagoon falls,
There are extensive gardens full of tame wildlife (toucan, macaws, various parrots, woodpeckers) The restaurant is a big open "Churuata" (indian hut) with buffet and a la carte menus. There's a large satellite TV too.
run by
Wei Tepü offers basic triple rooms with fan and private bathroom for Bs. 30,000 (around 15 US$). There are meals on request (breakfast Bs. 15,000, lunch and dinner Bs. 25,000


Angel Falls
The falls cascade from a canyon which pries open the heart-shaped Auyan mountain. Auyan is the largest of the many unique mesas here, rising 2,510 metres (8,233 ft) at the north-eastern edge of Canaima National Park. This is  in the river Churún, tributary of the Carrao,

A dozen operators and campamentos in Canaima make it their business to organise the trip by large dugout curiara boats with outboard engines up to the falls, and 90% of visitors to the falls pass through the village. Local Pemon families run smaller operations.

At the 'airport', many operators wait around for arriving planes. This is the best place to choose a tour operator if you haven’t done so already.

Angel Falls is deep within the National Park. When first entering the park (at the airport in Canaima) one must pay the park entrance fee of Bs. 8000 (US$ 4).

Angel Falls is located about 5 hours' ride in a dugout canoe upstream from Canaima village. The 30-minute or so walk from the closest point on the river to the base of the Falls is not easy going because of large tree roots on the path and visitors are advised to take sports shoes or suchlike for this hike.

Navigation upstream the Carrao and Churum River until arrive to the base of the Angel Falls. You'll experience the Mayupa Rapids and trekking on Ratoncito Island up to Mirador Laime (nearest place to Angel Falls).

"Day tours from Canaima range from $100 to $200 per person. Two-day, 1-night tours to Angel Falls can cost between $150 and $250. Be careful about trying to save a few dollars: Paying more for a respectable operator will often get you a boat with two working engines (required by law, but not always the case in practice), a more experienced captain (important, given the nature of the rivers), and a better and truly bilingual guide."

Canaima Lagoon
The Canaima lagoon, where the Carrao river plunges over a series of falls, is one of the most spectacular sights in Venezuela. The lagoons inviting white sand beaches are humbled by the falls which increase spectacularly with volume of the river flow.
At one side of the lagoon there are several waterfalls that jump into it: they are called Hacha, Wadaima, Golondrina and Ucaima. Behind them another spectacular sight: three tepuis (flat top mountains or table mountains): the Nonoy ("Zamuro" or Vulture), the Kuravaina ("Venado" or Deer) and the Topochi("Cerbatana" or Blowpipe). on the other side of the lagoon: palm trees.
. At a 15-minute hike uphill from the small village, you'll find a little lookout built as part of the small hydroelectric plant on the top of Ucaima Falls

 ---Cainaima Lagoon fotos

  Orchid Island
While orchids do thrive in Camaina National Park, the island is no longer particularly abundant in them. Navigating down the Carrao River on the way to the island, there is an excellent view of the Kurún, Venado y Kuravaina tepuyes. The rapids on the Maypa River tend to be very turbulent, making it necessary to disembark and walk around them, returning to the vessels further upriver. The Auyán tepuy or massif appears from a distance to lie very close to the island.
islaorquidea by appreciated more  in the month of May
EL Sapo (Toad) Falls
Starting from the beach of Cainama Lagoon you  crossed to reach the shores of main island in the lagoon Anatoly Island, the trip takes half a day. Located on the backside of the small Island, on the north end of the lagoon a visit to Salto El Sapo includes a 15-minute hike across the island, from the foot of Hacha Falls to the base of Salto El Sapo. Most exciting part of the trip is to walk behind the falls, hugging the wet rocky wall. Exiting  the other side,  visitors are led to the smaller El Sapito Falls, and then (when the water level permits) across the top.
The name of the waterfall is due to the affection of the people for the small mineral toad whose brilliant black skin is splotched with yellow spots, making it quite noticeable.
Yuri Falls
Just a 10-minute drive,  a 15-minute boat ride downstream and a short trek will get you to Yuri Falls. Following the short ride across the savannah to Puerto Verde where traditional Indian canoes "Curiara" take you on the Carrao River, with ample opportunity to enjoy the lush vegetation along the riverbanks. The pink sand beach is nice if you want to take a quick swim or simply enjoy the scenery.
Pemon Indians
Canaima is the homeland of one of the largest Amerindian populations in the country. The indigenous Pemon Indians, part of the Carib linguistic group, belonging to the Arekuna, Taurepane and Kamaracoto families which have spread over such a large area including the Caribbean islands. The date of first occupation of the Gran Sabana is not known, while some believe the Pemón  immigrated into the region only some 200 years ago (Thomas 1980), others say its much longer. There are archeological remains of human settlements which date back 9000 years (Schubert and Huber 1989)Nearby, west of the National Park live the Yekuana of Maquiritate Indians.  

The Pemon view of the cosmos, their relationships and perception of nature, as well as their system of social organization, contains much learned wisdom and is well worth your consideration.

The Pemón live mainly in the eastern sector of the park in scattered communities of 40-100 individuals. Many Pemón maintain traditional lifestyles of swidden agriculture, hunting and gathering. They also trade artifacts. They now have access to drinking water, electricity, schools and basic medical care.

Only about 50,000 people live in this area the size of Belgium, the original Pemon call this area Wekta, Land of Mountains and Tei Pun, the Great Plain

Although mining is prohibited inside the park, it takes place all around its borders. The sedimentary rock of the Shield here has eroded in such a way to create huge massifs with vertical cliffs which rise out of the plains and forests into the skies

Plant Life
The jungles and forests of Canaima National Park contain many heterogeneous flowers, including innumerable orchids and bromelias. Canaima has over 500 species of orchid alone. Many of the plants that grow on the top of the tepuys are found nowhere else on the planet and many of them are endemic to some particular tepuy. Among the more interesting flora are carnivorous plants that trap insects to complement their dietary nutrients.
One third of the species of plant life on Roraima evolved there and is unique to the plateau. Roraima is one of the harshest environments for life in the world. It rains almost every day of the year.

The most important types of vegetation are: savanna, moriche Mauritia groves, shrublands, montane forests and pioneer vegetation on the summits of the tepuis. Savannas can be divided into two types. On poor sandy soils, extensive grass savannas dominated by Trachypogon plumosus (IK) and Axonopus pruinosus (IK) are found. On more localised damp, richer soils, herb savannas consisting of Stegolepis ptaritepuiensis (IK), S. guianensis (IK) and Brocchinia steyermarkii occur. Forests are only found along rivers, in damp depressions and on the lower slopes and gullies of the tepuis. Tepui vegetation is characterized by endemic species and carnivorous plants, for example Heliamphora spp., Drosera roraima (IK) and Utricularia humboldtii (IK). The Canaima national park contains an estimated 3000-5000 species of phanerogams and ferns. The tepui system (comprising all the tepui formations and known as Pantepui) contains a high proportion of endemic taxa. For example, 900 species of higher plants have been identified from Auyán-tepui, of which some 10% are endemic to this massif. Canaima is also famous for its diversity of orchids, with an estimated 500 species recorded in the park (Government of Venezuela, 1993).
Orchid Trek in Gran Sabana

Tours ....Auyantepuy Travel Agency offers more than eighteen (18) years of solid experience and excellent service, providing a variety of Adventure Tours in one of the world most exciting new travel destinations, Venezuela
Angel Eco-tours
 "begin your trip in either Kavak (to visit the canyon) or Kamarata. From the latter, you take a dugout from three days, passing Angel Falls, and ending in Canaima. This tour can be arranged through Cacao Travel and Angel Eco-Tours.
Bernal Tours Postal 593
Bolivar, Venezuela South America tel/fax: (086) 620443 or (014) 884-0965 , run by the family of Tomás Bernal, a veteran of the Sabana who pioneered the trail behind Sabu Falls and died in 1998 
can be contacted through Adan Adventures  in Ciudad Bolivar, Tel: +58 281 268-9839 (adanadventures at  Campamento Parakaupa. Mr. Richard Chung (+58-414-8522305; e-mail: and Mr. Pablo Guerra were awesome guides!
Cacao Travel  can also organise the trek up Auyan Tepuy, which takes a minimum of ten days from Kavak
Canaima Tours tel: (0286) 962-5560, the agents for the Horturvensa camp.
Eco Adventure
Ruben Alberto Salazar, office at Ciudad Bolivar central bus station
Phone: 0058.414.893.13.18
trips to Rio Caura, Gran Sabana, Roraima, Delta del Orinoco and Los Llanos
Offices that operate directly in the camping in Canaima by TeleFax (58) 0286-961.49.63
 Email: parakaupa at
Kamarakoto Tours tel/fax in Puerto Ordatel: (0286) 27680
  Tiuna Tours tel: at Ciudad Bolívar airport (0285) 28697

Last Update: NOV2006 || Main Page: