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History of supernova observation
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It lies within the "Winter Triangle" of Sirius, Procyon and Betelgeuse, and contains a peculiar binary called Plaskett's Star, famous for being one of the most massive stars known. A size where astronomers can speculate on a future as a supernova or a black hole.

An excerpt from Reiner & Josua Otenns'  Atlas van Zeevaert en Koophandel Door de Geheele Weereldt, 1745. Monoceros between the two celestial dogs

There is a story that when all the animals of the earth were boarding the Ark, the unicorns were so busy playing to join the others. Is this the reason there are no more unicorns on the earth.  Or are there?  Many stories and poems of the unicorn tell us otherwise. These legends take us into a world of fantasy and dreams. When we use our imaginations, unicorns still exist.  The legend of the unicorn has been strong enough to survive throughout the ages, through all cultures.

MoMonoceros means "one horn" n



The Electric Universe
Plasma Universe
Plasma Cosmology

Science Frontiers

The History of Cosmic Ray Studies @ helios.gsfc.
Within the borders of the Monoceros constellation are some interesting objects such as V838 Mon,  the Rosette Nebula, and Hubble's Variable Nebula,
Rosette Nebula .....Splendid Diffused Nebula around the head of Mon., 3600 light years away Wide field around Rosette Nebula .....The distribution of faint gas between 2 bodies above Southern region of Rosette Nebula .....The distribution of small diffused nebulae south of Rosette Nebula
The Dark Star
The 'True Sun' of the Incas
Mithraists somehow believed in the existence of two suns: one represented by the figure of the sun god, and the other by Mithras himself as the "unconquered sun" It is thus of great interest to note that the Mithraists were not alone in believing in the existence of two suns, for we find in platonic circles the concept of the existence of two suns, one being the normal astronomical sun and the other being a so-called "hypercosmic" sun located beyond the sphere of the fixed stars."
more @ labyrinthina.com
Taurus is represented in the Hall of the Bulls in the caves at Lascaux. The paintings are some 16,500 years old. One of the painted bulls is near a cluster of dots that looks like the Pleiades, and which is the correct position over its shoulder to be that asterism. The same pattern is found in pits in the floor, which could have been filled with oil and lit to recreate the lights of the Pleiades inside the cave, though there is no evidence that this actually happened.
Celestial Year = 25,920 years.
72 years (and 7 + 2 = 9), 2160 years (and 2 +1 +6 +0 = 9), and 25,920 years (and 2 + 5 + 9 + 2 + 0 = 18, and 1 +8 = 9).  And 25,920 divided by the divine Sumerian number 60 is 432 (and 4  + 3 + 2 = 9).
"Knowledge carved in stone is temporal. The progenitors of the Ancient Egyptians carved their knowledge in the stars so that it would never be desecrated, worn away or lost. Their knowledge would be eternal. The progenitors of the Ancient Egyptians were the Masons of the Heavens."
Audrey Fletcher


Sirius is a star with a long astrological lineage, known to have been important as far back as the Ancient Egyptians, to whom it represented the god Anubis.

Sidney Hall (fl 1817-60) engraver and publisher 1

On top of their head they have a single horn pointing skyward, which thy use to fight fearlessly and fiercely, but only when they cannot run away. They believe everyone, every living being have the right to live free.


Keep your eye on the Unicorn!

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Plaskett's Star

Two of the largest suns in the known universe are tightly orbiting each other with a period of only 14.40 days


Named after the Canadian astronomer J. S. Plaskett (1865-1941), who first studied its amazing properties in 1922 (and more formally known as HR 2422 in the "Bright Star Catalogue"). While not coming up to the "king," Eta Carinae, Plaskett's Star (just to the northeast of the famed Rosette Nebula in the modern constellation Monoceros) is still one of the most massive binaries (doubles) known, with two hugely massive blue-white class O (as best we can tell, O7.5 and O6) supergiants tightly orbiting each other with a period of only 14.40 days. The stars are so close together that it is very difficult to disentangle their properties from each other, though it HAS been done through observations of their spectra as they whirl around a common center of mass. While from the observed orbital velocities, the cooler is the less massive (43 Suns), it is visually the brighter and is called the "primary" (Plaskett A), the other (at 51 Suns) the "secondary" (Plaskett B). One of the biggest problems is the distance, as Plaskett's is too far away for any parallax measure, so far that its light is dimmed by 1.1 magnitudes through absorption of starlight by the interstellar dust of the Milky Way. Plaskett's has long been considered to be part of the Monoceros OB2 association of massive O and B stars, which (from spectroscopy) lies 4900 light years away. But membership in these systems is devilishly difficult to determine, and Plaskett's may be even farther, the spectroscopic evidence suggesting that it is as far as 6600 light years.

The stars are known for their colliding winds, that of the primary having whittled the star down to 43 solar masses from a birth mass of 54 solar. The primary (A) is rotating with a projected speed 75 kilometers per second, while the secondary is spinning much faster, the speed around 300 km/s (for a rotation period as short as two days), that and the surrounding mass loss rendering the system a unique sort of "shell star." There seems to be but one fate, that both stars will someday erupt in brilliant supernovae.[Like the one at the left Supernova 1987A]  The first one to go may well eject its mate at high speed, or, more interesting for future astronomers, the pair could stay together and end up as a binary neutron star, a double black hole, or some combination of the two. Keep your eye on the Unicorn!
by Jim Kaler. Return to STARS.(Most of these data are from a paper by W. G. Bagnuolo Jr., D. R. Geis, and M. S. Wiggs that appeared in the Astrophysical Journal, vol. 385, p. 708, 1992.


 bombard us ultra high-energy cosmic rays

Black holes are the most likely source of the mysterious ultra high-energy cosmic rays that bombard the planet, scientists have discovered.
Observations at the world's largest cosmic ray detector suggest the particles are emitted by huge black holes in the middle of nearby galaxies. The findings, unveiled in Science, may solve a long-running puzzle. The origins of the highest energy forms of cosmic rays have been a mystery since their discovery in 1912.[
Plasma cosmology

Releasing your mind from the grip of the mechanistic rationalists

It is important to understand that gravity based models were codified before space travel and high powered telescopes. Back then our galaxy, The Milky Way, was considered the entirety of the universe ... and electrically sterile! Instead of trying to shoehorn what we now see into old models, Plasma Cosmology respects the progress of the past, but is not constrained by it. Scientific theories, by definition, are vulnerable to being falsified. Science moves on.

Plasma is almost everywhere. At least ninety-nine percent of the known universe is, in fact, matter in its plasma state! The Sun is a giant ball of plasma. Plasma lamp

Plasma in space consists entirely of ions and electrons, and is thus very energetic or 'hot'. Only when cooled does it form the matter to which we are familiar here on Earth: solids, liquids, and gases.

Because plasma remains electrically charged in space, it is influenced more by electromagnetic forces than gravity. In fact space, once considered mostly empty, has been found to be alive with plasma. Vast flows of charged particles have been discovered spanning hundreds-of-thousands of light years across interstellar space.

The most familiar examples of electrical plasmas here on earth are neon signs and lighting, television screens, and electrical arc welding machines. Fire and Lightning are also forms of Plasma.

While conventional astronomy maps magnetism, electric currents are excluded on the mistaken basis that they are of no significance in space.

Working from the inertia of this prior belief, astrophysicists have a tendency to talk in euphemisms. 'Electron rains' and 'clouds of ionized gas' are just two examples. From a conservative perspective these terms might seem easier to grasp than the behavior of more ethereal plasma, but they are, nonetheless, obfuscations. In reality we are talking about electrodynamic phenomena.

Plasma cosmology does NOT rely on abstract mathematical modeling or an increasing array of exotic hypotheticals like Dark Matter and Dark Energy!



Winter's Great Triangle is formed by the bright stars
 Betelgeuse, Sirius, aand Procyon
Winter's Great Triangle is formed by the bright stars Betelgeuse, Sirius, and Procyon within is the

Monoceros is on the celestial equator between Orion and Hydra. Bordering constellations: Canis Major ,
Canis Minor,Gemini,Hydra,Lepus,Orion, & Puppis


 Monoceros, the Unicorn, is the almost invisible unicorn.  It was 'officially' named in 1690 as Monoceros as European explorers starting in the 16th century began to chart southern parts of sky never seen from the northern hemisphere. Definitive constellations boundaries were fixed in 1930 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as constellations number was fixed at 88. A base to today constellations are the famous 48 constellations which were recensed by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy.

 Although its dimness in the night sky gives us no legends to pass on, it does boast of having the two most massive stars, yet, discovered. The two blue-giants are estimated to be some 55 times the size of the sun, and revolve around each other. Together they are known as Plaskett's Star, the reference I have for them, indicates that they are located at the head of the unicorn.

Monoceros is a modern constellation, generally supposed to have been charted by Bartchius as Unicornus; but Olbers and Ideler indicate the constellation is actually much older, with it appering in works as early at 1564, and Scaliger is reported to have found it on an ancient Persian sphere.

Scorpius is the slayer of Orion. Sent by a. jealous Artemis, Orion was stung by the Scorpion and caused his death. Orion could not be saved even by Asclepius, the god of healing.

Scorpius was also responsible for the runaway horses of Phoebus Apollo when Phaethon tried to drive the Chariot of the Sun, he caused great havoc as he careened around the skies, drying up rivers and scorching the earth.


Our winter sky is  dominated by Orion, club raised and shield forward, he takes on the mighty bull, Taurus. However, like every over confident hunter, Orion seems to be unaware of the creature that is following him, tracking his every movement across the celestial sphere. That creature is Monoceros, the Unicorn. Monoceros, compared to its bejewelled neighbours is a dim constellation, often lost in the suburban glow

Joseph Scaliger is reported to have found it on an ancient Persian sphere.


Constellations. Monoceros (moh-NOSS-er-us) - the Unicorn
reported found on Persian spheres


Canis Minor is a Plumb Rule

Monoceros.  6.8 kb

Monoceros, the unicorn, straddles the celestial equator. When due north, Monoceros is to the right of Orion and below Canis Major.

It contains 66 naked-eye stars according to Argelander, — Heis says 112, — and is interesting chiefly from its many telescopic clusters, and as being located in the Milky Way.

Monoceros boasts the two most massive stars yet discovered. The two blue giants are estimated to be some 55 times the size of the sun, and they revolve around each other. Together they are known as Plasketts Star.

Its discovery has been attributed to Jakob Bartsch, a German mathematician, and son-in-law of Johannes Kepler, who brought it into general use on as the star charts expanded with the European exploration of the southern hemisphere and the telescope.  However the Persians had it on their spheres much earlier according to Joseph Scaliger.  

The Constellation of Monoceros, the Unicorn, forms the Square and Compasses. The Square is at 90 degrees and the Compasses at 55 degrees. In Ancient Egypt the Plumb Rule was called a Merkhet. The Merkhet was used in conjunction with a Plumb Line to measure the positions of stars and their corresponding positions on the ground in Egypt.


Plaskett's Star
Orbit period of Plaskett A and B: 14.40 days

Space between Plaskett A and B: 0.5 AU

6600 light-years from earth is Plaskett's Star or HD 47129 is a narrow double of two blue supergiants beyond their main-sequence stadium. Both have strong stellar winds which collide in the middle and produce a cloud around the stars.
TThe smaller one (A) is optically brighter, probably because much light of the bigger one is absorbed by the cloud.

Plaskett's Star
Photo: ESO Online Digitized Sky Survey/font>

In early 2002, an innocuous star in the Monocero constellation, suddenly brightened and was briefly the most luminous star in the Milky Way. But rather than being a classical nova, it evolved into a luminous, cool supergiant producing 'light echoes'.


What does it all mean?
A symbol can always be studied from an infinite number of points of view; and each thinker has the right to discover in the symbol a new meaning corresponding to the logic of his own conceptions. Symbols are precisely intended to awaken ideas sleeping in our consciousness. They arouse a thought by means of suggestion and thus cause the truth which lies hidden in the depths of our spirit to reveal itself. In order that symbols could speak, it is essential that we should have in ourselves the germs of the ideas, the revelation of which constitutes the mission of the symbols. But no revelation whatever is possible if the mind is empty, sterile and inert. By their very nature, symbols must remain elastic, vague and ambiguous, like the sayings of an oracle. Their role is to unveil mysteries, leaving the mind all its freedom.
P.D. Ouspensky, A New Model of the Universe, p. 217.)
Why does the earth wobble?

The Dark Star Theory of Carnaval


The Egyptians chose five epagomenal days to fill the annual 360 days calendar. They tied the rising of Sirius to these five days. In addition they connected the birth houses of Osiris, Horus the Elder, Seth, Isis, and Nephthys to Orion, Auriga, Lepus, Canis Major, and Canis Minor. Egypt, being Taurus, completed the circle of constellations at the intersection of the Milky Way and the ecliptic, and completed the calendar with this ritual which must be counted among the great Carnaval traditions of antiquity.

Surrounded by the constellations of Canis Major, Canis Minor, Gemini, Hydra, Lepus, Orion, and Puppis, Monoceros is an extraordinary constellation that garners little attention because it lacks any particularly well-known bright stars.  which surrounds R Mon. Hence, the unicorn seems to be a fitting mythical character to portray this constellation.

Image:UK Royal Coat of Arms.svg

Unicorn of Scotland.
(The unicorn is chained because in mediaeval times a free unicorn was considered a very dangerous beast (only a virgin could tame a unicorn)King James VI of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth I when she died childless in 1603, effectively uniting Scotland and England beneath one rule. The Scottish Royal Arms had up to that point used two unicorns as shield supporters. The English Arms had used a variety of supporters, but most frequently had included a lion. In a tactful gesture then, he placed a lion upon the left of the new Arms, and a unicorn upon the right. This was a potent bit of symbolism, for both the lion and the unicorn had long been thought to be deadly enemies: both regarded as king of the beasts, the unicorn rules through harmony while the lion rules through might, It came to symbolise a reconciliation between the Scottish unicorn and the English lion that the two should share the rule.

" Dieu et mon Droit "
French for ‘God and my right’ motto was first used by King Richard I in 1198
 and the motto of the Order of the Garter:
Honi soit qui mal y pense
('Evil to him who evil thinks')

On the Coat-of-Arms, the belt surrounding the shield; with which the people were to gird up their loins with great strength; has written on it, "Honi soit qui mal y pense".

"Honi soit qui mal y pense" is Old French and it is one of God's rules concerning His advice and Divine-Justice and means "Evil be to him who thinks it".

Under it, in French, is written "Dieu et Mon Droit" - "God and My Right"

Blue Stars Leo to the Egyptians, was the place the Sun rose after creation (near Denebola) and so was called Domicilium Solis, the badge of fire and heat, or the House of the Sun.

Leo is the Nemean Lion from the Moon who was sent by Hera to slay Hercules. As Hercules first labor, he killed the lion by strangling it with his bare hands. Hercules wore the skin, which made him invincible. When Hercules died, the lion was returned to the celestial heavens with Hercules.

Hubble's Variable Nebula,

Blue Stars Background
Blue Stars: With more than three and up to 150 solar masses a star shines blue - the bigger and hotter the more intensive. These stars burn their fuel much quicker than their smaller fellows and for this are much more luminous. After a few to a few hundred million years they leave the main sequence and, except the most biggest, become red giants or supergiants.
Open clusters of  Monoceros
Open clusters are the most easily seen type in a small telescope or binoculars
Messier 50 in Monoceros is a fine open cluster first discovered by Cassini around 1711, but had to be re-discovered by Messier in 1772.  M50 is 2,900 light years away, 14 light years in diameter, and has a luminosity of 6,400 of our suns
NGC 2264 commonly known as the "Christmas Tree" cluster is located in the constellation of Monoceros.  To see the tree it is necessary to view the image lying on your side (sorry for this).  The stars of this cluster are embedded in an extensive but tenuous nebulosity and traces of this can be seen "trimming" the tree.  The dark, "Cone nebula" can be seen at the "top" of the tree to the right of the image
Mosaic of Taurus-Orion-Monoceros Region @phys.vt.edu/ [Virginia Tech]
H-alpha intensities using a non-linear transformation to grayscales
Eta Car: the brightest star
Eta Car is one of the sky's prime candidates to become a supernova, the result of nuclear burning to an iron core, which collapses and blows the star apart. Indeed, it may become a "hypernova," one of a kind that produces a powerful burst of gamma rays similar to those seen coming from ultradistant galaxies billions of light years away. Keep your eye to the southern sky, for (at least on an astronomical time-scale) Eta Car is not long for this Galaxy.

Extremely massive stars are key astronomical objects, as they play a role in chemical enrichment and galactic evolution. They mark the end of their stellar lives as supernovae explosions in which a single supernova can equal the entire radiant output of a galaxy of a billion stars. Alarmingly, the Milky Way possesses one possible member of this putative class, the massive, luminous, and relatively nearby star, Eta Carinae. Eta Carinae is both an extremely massive star and an extremely unstable one. It's notorious for erupting in the mid-19th century, and is surrounded by the ejecta from this eruption.




You Tube Action -Music Video from the Stars
This work is a compilation of  many articles, books and Web sites, covering a wide range of viewpoints. Some are quite convincing, some speculative, and others apparently preposterous. You decide.

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